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Although the following was written quite some time ago, the underlining theme is even more hard-hitting today. The statements below not only apply to software, but in today’s electronic world, serious penalties for copyright infringement carry over to music, movies, television shows and even
Consider the points made and take the necessary measures to adjust your use of software, electronic music, DVDs, and imagesdvd-best.
florence I’m Florence, Paggui. Here is a good philosophy of life, enjoy the road with flowers and enjoy the road with stones.
paggui GODDI, JAMELA
If I take a DVD with a piece of software on it, without the owner’s approval, then everyone would agree that it is an act of theft. But if I only copy the disc’s content, or downloads it over the internet, and thus do not deprive the owner of any physical object, is it still theft?
The most basic understanding of theft would be when you take possession of someone’s physical property without that someone’s approval, be it a car, a wallet, or some jewels. Prototypically theft involves touchable things, but it can also extend to nonphysical things. For instance, you can illegally empty someone else’s bank account without actually moving any physical coins or money around. It would still be theft, even though no physical objects are involved. In both cases, you would have deprived the rightful owner of something of value.
But can the concept of ‘theft’ be extended to illegal copying and downloading of software? Clearly you have not deprived the owner of anything physical or even digital. You have merely copied it. The software itself is still there in its original place, so how can it be theft?
If I steal a physical DVD with software on it, it is not the disc itself I want. It’s the content of the disc that I want. If I illegally copy or download it, I’m after the same thing. The fact that I’m not taking the software with its physical container/carrier seems irrelevant to me. I have illegally transferred something into my possession that doesn’t belong to me. I have thereby also unduly benefited from someone else’s property. I have infringed on the legal owner’s right to control its distribution. Does this amount to theft? Instinctively I would say yes, it does.
Now, I can understand if people object to this. It’s common to treat words and their meanings as fixed points in the universe. If you have a fixed concept of the word ‘theft’, and try to apply that to illegal copying/downloading, then you would naturally conclude that illegal copying is not an act of theft because you’re not depriving the owner of the thing you’re making a copy of but words and meanings are not fixtures. Nor should they be treated as such. The world around us changes all the time, and so we must constantly re-negotiate our vocabulary to match it. Otherwise our language would eventually be useless.
The meaning of ‘theft’ relies on (at least) three concepts, namely, property, ownership and possession, as well as on how those concepts are transferred between keeper and taker. When the idea of theft was originally thought up (an occasion now long lost to history), there were no digital products around. Now there are. I can have ownership and possession of a physical thing like a car, and I can have ownership and possession of a digital product like a piece of software or a digital recording. A piece of software cannot normally change hands in a physical sense, only copied. That is, while you can transfer the ownership of software, you cannot physically transfer the property itself. You can copy it and then delete the original, but unless you transfer the software’s physical carrier/container, the software by itself cannot be transferred.
If the concept of ‘theft’ depends necessarily on the illegal transfer of the property itself, it should by implication never be possible to steal digital products. To me, there’s something wrong, and obsolete, about that. In principle, anything that can be possessed can also be stolen. It really isn’t that much of a stretch to re-think the idea of ‘theft’ to include illegal copying/downloading. We need to focus on theft as an act of illegally taking possession of a property, and only that. The physical transfer of the property itself does not have to be involved.
I should perhaps emphasize that I’m not talking about the legal definition of ‘theft’ here. I’m trying to understand a colloquial usage of the word ‘theft’, in particular my own. And to be quite frank, I’m not even sure that I’m all that categorical about it. Perhaps we do need a new word for this. I guess my only point is that it’s at least not impossible to think of illegal copying/downloading as an act of theft. Many people do not view software as property because it is not a tangible thing that you can pick up and hold. However, not all property is tangible. Software is intellectual property, just like a song, a book, an article, a trademark or an invention. All of these things are owned, and can be bought, sold and licensed. All of them are used to make money for the people who create them. In the case of most commercial programs, the people who have worked to create them do this work for a living. In most cases, software engineers are not millionaires, they are working people like you who have staked their livelihoods on the programs you are stealing. In a very real sense, you are taking bread from their table by making or using illegal copies.
If you are copying software illegally, you should stop immediately. If you see someone else doing it, tell them to stop. If they don’t stop, turn them in. The practice exposes you and/or the institute to liability, jeopardizes your chances of receiving a good, legitimate deal from vendors, and compromises RIT’s reputation in the business community
case studies below:
You are a computer system manager. An employee out sick and another employee requests that you copy all files from the sick person’s computer to theirs so that they can do some work.
What do you do?
Obvious risk is privacy. Other risk is there might be a complaint suit from the employee. If the work that needs to be done (by employee making request), risk of it not being completed.
Ethical decision depends, in part, on policies and expectations at particular company. Also on perhaps requiring more information. Can call sick employee, but this might not be possible. Request authorization from project manager, or employee’s line manager.
In actual case, system manager refused to transfer all files, but agreed to transfer specific files if given the filenames.
You work for one of the large credit card companies. Someone asks you to get a copy of a person’s file. He will pay you R1000.
What do you do?
Who are the stakeholders?
What alternative actions are open to you?
Which are ethically prohibited or obligatory?
A variant of the scenario:
You know another employee sells files with people’s personal information. Again, what do you do?
You are the manager of a university computer system that provides computer accounts and email facilities to students. You discover that a handful of students have been spamming the entire class and sending junk email to all of the email aliases. You are unable to find out exactly who these students are as they are using a facility out with the university and posting anonymously. What do you do?
These scenarios will be asked to different individuals. Two (2) individuals for each scenario should be interviewed. These individuals should be a professional in your field. Take a video or picture of the interview then let the person sign in your documentation.
Your output will be a portfolio which should be done in a simple blog. You could choose any free blogging sites for your portfolio.
The design of your portfolio should include the following:
A brief overview of who you are in and out (for each member of the pair). With picture of your choice.
Your personal philosophy (belief) on professional ethics.
The topic you selected then below it would be the articles related to your topic then your meta-analysis
Interviews with 2 individuals for each scenario with videos or pictures and other documents in support.
Your own point of view on the scenarios
One of company policy is that segregation of duties is very important for better control purposes. But in some instances like these in case of absences or in leave employees yet their work is a pre-step or pre-requisite to succeeding personnel’s or employee’s work, then there must be a policy when it comes to access on files or work of absent employee that is necessary for work of other employee. Only those specific files allowed and necessary for other employee’s work would be transferred provided for their proper authorization.
In some cases most employees who will be taking leave for any valid reasons would advise or give notice to their line manager and leave from some specific when work must be accomplished during his/her leave.
Sorry that I will not give any copy of a person’s file or our client’s file to anyone without proper authorization and proper verification. I regardless of any offer, as an employee of a credit card company it’s not my duty or obligation to give a copy of a person file to authorize person its our responsibility to protect our clients privacy and serve them well.
We can only give a copy of persons file upon request for our client but with through verification of valid identification and representation or if such information is required b law such compliance with subpoena issued by court in the course of legal proceedings, or if there is a professional duty to disclose or provide a copy of information to defend our self if used by our client.
In case we found out that other employee sells tiles of client’s personal information, it’s our duty to inform those who are in higher authority for proper action of such illegal act (unethical act).
Some procedures we must do when unusual transactions happens would be :
Computer security reviews must be performed
Review authentication and identification controls including password time and day contained access periodic code and password change Random personal information check and automatic log OFF.
Adopt newly developed intrusion detect systems that use artificial intelligence capabilities to detect unusual transactions fallowing thought a system. These are involving and have the prospect of being an order of magnitude improvement in crime detection technology.
D) Fire walls must be installed.
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INTRODUCTION: Rudraksh, Sanskrit: rudrākṣa (“Rudra’s eyes”), is a seed is traditionally used for prayer beads in hinduism. Rudraksha stems from Hindu mythology and means “the eyes of Shiva”. The mythology that surrounds the Rudraksha is that the Hindu god Shiva meditated on the welfare of all mankind and cried tears of compassion, peace and joy.
Botanical name of RUDRAKSHA : ELAEOCARPUS GANITRUS ROXB
TYPES OF RUDRAKSHA: mainly it is of three types:
Nepali Rudraksha Bead
Indonesian Rudraksha Bead
Indian Rudraksha Bead
Nepali Rudraksha Bead and Indonesian Rudraksha Bead
Species: Rudrakshas from Nepal & Indonesia both belong to the “Elaeocarpus Granitrus Roxb.” Family as they both share the same internal structure though there might be slight differences on the external surface.
Variety: Both Nepal & Indonesia produce Rudrakshas right from 2 mukhi to 21 mukhi, Gaurishanker, Ganesha, savar & trijudi Rudraksha. Rudrakshas like 1 mukhi & 22 mukhi to 38 mukhi are rarely produced. Whereas Rudraksha from India range from 1 mukhi to 7 mukhi. To check out the different varieties of Rudrakshas visit Multifaceted Rudrakshas.
Mukhis / Facets: The mukhis / facets of Nepalese & Indian Rudrakshas are very well formed, defined & have deep groove cavities on the outer surface, whereas the facets of Indonesian Rudrakshas are just like thread lines slightly etched in the outer surface, hardly a few beads would have deep grooves.
Shape: Rudrakshas from both Nepal & Indonesia share a common shape, 2 & 3 mukhi Rudrakshas from both the origins are elliptically round in shape whereas 5,6,7,8 are mostly round, 9 to 21 & above are oval with a concave top & bottom.
Center hole: Rudrakshas from all the origins have a natural center hole, the center hole may not be very well defined from 3 mukhi to 7 mukhi in either origins. The center hole is absent in Indian Rudrakshas, they have to be drilled by hand. Usually the center hole is covered with the pulp (outer coating), which at times just requires to be hand cleaned before stringing.
Availability: Original Nepalese & Indonesian Rudrakshas are rare to find since lot of faking is going on, lower valued Rudrakshas are being converted into high value beads with the help of skilled artisans. Whereas the Indian Rudrakshas are commonly available. Faking of 1 mukhi half moon shaped from India has increased tremendously & a few well informed Indian 2 mukhis are sold as Nepalese origin at a higher price.
Demand: The demand of higher faceted Nepalese Rudrakshas is more than its supply, whereas the demand & supply of Indonesian Rudrakshas are equal to each other. In terms of Indian Rudrakshas the supply is excess than its demand.
Indian Rudraksha Bead
Indian Rudraksha has cells or Mukhis which differ in numbers. A facet is a line or groove which runs from one end to of Rudraksha to the other end. In ancient epic like Shiv Puran, Shri Mad Devi Bhagwat, Padmpuran etc.
Rudraksha upto 14 Mukhis have been described along with their effects and purpose for which they are useful. Hight Mukhi Rudraksha from 15 to 27 Mukhis have also been found in the later countries their benefits recorded as per experience of the learned people. There are other Rudraksha like Gauri Shankar (two Rudraksha having naturally joined on the tree), Ganesha (a Rudraksha having trunk like protrusion on its body) Sawar (a Gauri Shankar in which one bead has only one line or Mukhi), Trijuti (three Rudraksha beads joined naturally on the tree.
Effects of Rudraksha on Human Being : The Rudraksha is slowly but surely making its way into the lives of the health conscious human beings. The Rudraksha helps in relieving from blood pressure and lessening stress. Soak it in a glass of water overnight and drink it the next day to relieve stomach disorders. Dip it in any vegetable oil for 21 days, and apply it on your aching joints and feel the relief you get. Of course, most people who have tried this have done so along with their regular medicine, but another approach the Rudraksha with a mixture of open mindedness and faith, rationalism as well as emotion, to get positive feedback that is why many who put it under their pillow have sworn that it cured them of their insomnia.
Benefits of Rudraksha Bead :
Rudraksha worshipped as a source of good luck, good health, prosperity, medical values, success, financial gains and for eradication of evil forces.
One chaturmukha ( 4 faces) Rudraksha and one shanmukha (6 faces) Rudraksha tied together with copper wire and wearing with red thread as a (talisman) shiva shakti locket will improve the attentiveness, memory growth, interest in studies, etc., Boon for studies and aged, pundit’s, astrologers, leaders, etc.
For the bite of a Scorpion or other such creatures panchamukhi Rudraksha can be rubbed on a grind stone with the juice of a lemon and the paste applied on the affected spot. Pain will subside.
Those who takes the bath by keeping 9 (nine) Rudrakshas in water will get benefits equally to Ganga Jal Bathing and energy gaining.
The process of Japa increases spiritual power and self-confidence to move in multi direction of life. Therefore, Rudraksha seeds are found be useful for providing health benefits as well as helps in gaining spiritual success.
Wearing Rudraksha results in the destruction of sins from previous birth that cause difficulties in the present life.
There are many laboratories for testing the originality of Gemstone. Now a days demand of Gemstone testing increases because of having its effect on Human Being.
Knowing if a gemstone is real or fake is important so that you don’t end up paying more than its value. Why should you be paying a great deal of money for a fake gem? At the first glance you may not be able to distinguish between a real and fake gem. So you will need to look more closely and look for signs. Imitation or simulated stones look real but their physical characteristics are far from real stones. All natural stones have some inclusions, which makes it easier for a gemologist to distinguish between a real gem and fake gem. So if you are being sold a gem that looks too perfect, it is likely to be a synthetic one that has undergone many treatments in the lab. There is no harm in buying a synthetic gemstone as long as you are fine with it.
Natural gemstones are ones that are naturally beautiful, without any treatments or enhancements. Synthetic gems have more sparkle than real gemstones. They have more weight than original stones as chemicals are added to make the gem look real. A fake gemstone could either be a glass stone or a lab-created stone.
There are some tools and equipment by which Gem stone is tested. Like
• Gemological Binocular Microscope
• 10x Triplet Jeweler’s Loupe
• Mag Light with Dark Field
• Jemeter (infrared reflectance meter)
• Chelsea Filter
• Master Colored Grading Set
• Master Colored Grading Set
• Electronic Metals Tester
There are some steps for testing Gemstones:
Step 1 – Basic Observation: Color, Transparency, and Specific Gravity
The tools we will use in this step like Tweezers, 10x loupe, light source.
Is your stone transparent, translucent, or opaque? Then determine how strong your stone’s fire or dispersion is, if fire is present at all, and note whether it’s strong, moderate, or weak.
Bounce the stone in your palm to determine its heft. Does it feel as heavy as you think it should, considering its size? Does it feel heavier, or unusually light? This is a simple way to determine the stone’s specific gravity.
Step 2 – Light It and Loupe It: Optical Phenomena and Luster :
Pass a pen light or similar sharp, concentrated, incandescent light beam across the stone’s surface to check for special optical characteristics (phenomena), like color change, asterism (star), chatoyancy (cat’s-eye), adularescence (floating shimmer), aventurescence (sparkle), etc.
Turn your stone so that light reflects off its surface (as shown) to assess its luster. View the stone with the naked eye as well as with a 10x loupe (as shown). What do you see? Is it dull, waxy, metallic, shiny like a diamond (adamantine), vitreous (glass-like), greasy, silky?
If there are any chips on the stone, describe the surface inside the chipped area. Is it rounded like the rings on a seashell (conchoidal), straight like steps, granular, splintery, or just uneven? Also determine its luster in the chipped spaces.
Step 3 – Determining Refractive Index and Birefringence:
Before you begin, make sure that your stone is still clean. Also note that refractometers require a light source, so if yours doesn’t have a light built in, you’ll need to shine a light into the light port on the back of it. Almost any light will do, but monochromatic light will generally show you a crisper, clearer reading than white light.
Close the refractometer’s cover whenever possible while taking a gem’s RI so that ambient light around you won’t interfere with your reading. Finally, check your refractometer’s calibration from time to time by taking a test reading on a stone. Then we will perform Birefringence test.
Step 4 – Determining Single vs. Double Refraction :
The tool we will use is polariscope. A polariscope is a simple tool that will help you determine if your gem is doubly refractive (DR), singly refractive (SR), or an aggregate (AGG). Note that only transparent and translucent gemstones should be used with a polariscope; opaque or nearly opaque stones won’t provide a reading.
Gemstone Identification : It describes a color stone and lists detectable treatments.
Like : NATURAL YELLOW SAPPHIRE IDENTIFICATION
Trade name: Pukhraj
Weight : 48.50 cts
Color : Yellow
Shape and Cut : as per the requirement
Gemstone Grading Report
Full 4Cs assessment- Cut, Color, Carat, Clarity. Laboratory report number included. For loose, Ruby, sapphire, Emerald, Tanzanite, Spessartite Garnet, Demontoid Garnet, and Phenomenon stones. Each report also includes possible detected treatment indication.
The diamond market is rife with fabrications that are so close to the real thing. To some, these fabrications are an offense to real diamonds everywhere, whereas others are simply glad to buy a cheaper simulate. What difference does it make to the consumer, especially when no one carries diamond testers with them to test the legitimacy of strangers’ diamonds? Whatever the case may be, it is important to know the basics of discerning the difference between a real and a fake diamond to ensure that the customer gets exactly what they want.
The primary way of testing a diamond is by using a testing machine. These small mechanisms send heat through the gem to test how quickly it conducts the heat. Every type of stone has it’s own rate of conducting heat, meaning that a real diamond will always go at a certain speed. The only problem with this method is that another mineral, moissanite, has the exact same rate of heat conductivity as a diamond, so special tests need to be done after the fact to ensure that the diamond is not this mineral.
But those who do not have access to a diamond testing machine have other means of finding out. Diamonds distort whatever goes through them, whereas a fake stone will show a clear image like glass. Placing a diamond on top of some newspaper text, for example, is a way to test this. If the stone distorts the letters, it is real. If the stone acts like glass and is completely see-through, it is fake.
DIAMOND TESTERS AND U.V. (Ultra Violet light) :
Some models of diamond tester have a built-in UV light, and this has led to the quite logical assumption that UV light can be used for testing diamonds. This is not true. There is absolutely no way you can distinguish diamond from non-diamond using UV light. The only useful thing to know is that diamonds fluoresce (glow) randomly. So if you have a cluster ring or a diamond brooch and all the stones react in exactly the same way (whether they fluoresce or not) – they are probably not diamond; if some fluoresce and some don’t…then they might be diamond…but they might not.
UV light does, however, has some use for gemologist because it can give an indication of probability when comparing natural diamonds with synthetic diamonds (see ‘Explanation’ at the bottom of this section). For examining ‘parcels’ of diamonds you will need a UV lamp that provides long-wave (this is the type we sell, this is the type on the diamond tester) AND a short-wave UV light (which we don’t sell). View the stones on a black background in a completely dark room (or a special UV viewing cabinet). Natural colourless diamonds (of which about 40% fluoresce) usually fluoresce more under long-wave than under short-wave; some synthetic diamonds have just the reverse reaction, the fluorescence is weak (or nil) under long-wave, and strong (or stronger) under short-wave. If, therefore, you buy loose diamonds it could be worthwhile checking each parcel under UV light to judge the probable mix of ‘naturals’ and ‘synthetics’. But examining a diamond under a UV light will tell you nothing. This information is for the gemmologist or professional diamond dealer, the average jeweller or antiques dealer does not need to know any of this.
UV light can also be useful when grading a diamond for color, because white diamonds that fluoresce under UV light also fluoresce under UV light present in daylight, and this can make the stone appear a better color than it really is.
Moissanite is a manmade stone (it doesn’t exist in nature in a form that can be cut into gemstones*). It is not common, it was only ‘invented’ in the 1990s, its only significance is that is registers ‘diamond’ on diamond testers. Moissanite does, to the non-expert, look remarkably like diamond – but it is not diamond it is Moissanite, i.e. Moissanite is not a ‘type’ of diamond, it is another stone altogether. Moissanite testers work by measuring electrical conductivity through the stone. Diamond is not electrically conductive, Moissanite is. However, there is a very rare type of diamond (Type II diamonds) which has an unusual chemical composition (it does not contain nitrogen, it does contains boron) and this makes the diamond electrically conductive, i.e. it will register ‘Moissanite’ on a diamond tester.
IDENTIFICATION REPORT: identification Report is a response to the increase in treated and synthetic diamonds in the market place. Available for D-Z and colored diamonds 0.20 carats and less and black diamond’s 5.00 carats and less, Diamond testing services offer tests to determine:
Natural vs. synthetic and color treatment
DIAMOND GRADING REPORT: Diamond Grading Report includes an assessment of the 4Cs – Color, Clarity, Cut, and Carat Weight – along with a plotted diagram of its clarity characteristics. For standard round brilliant cut diamonds falling in the D-to-Z color range, the report also includes a GIA Cut grade.
There are many laboratories for testing the originality of jewelries. Now a days demand of jewellery testing increases because of having its increasing market value.
Knowing if a gemstone used in jewellery is real or fake is important so that you don’t end up paying more than its value. Why should you be paying a great amount of money for a fake jewellery? At the first glance you may not be able to distinguish between a real and fake gem. So people will need to look more closely and look for signs. Imitation or simulated stone looks real but their physical characteristics are far from real stones . All original stones have some inclusions, which makes it easier for a gemologist to distinguish between a real gem and fake gemstone. So if you are being sold a gemstone that looks too perfect, it is likely to be a synthetic one that has undergone many treatments in the lab. Natural gemstones used in jewelries are ones that are naturally beautiful, without any enhancements or treatments
There are some tools and equipment by which Gem stones used in jewelry is tested in laboratory.
• Mag Light with Dark Field
• Jemeter (infrared reflectance meter)
• Chelsea Filter
• Master Colored Grading Set
• Electronic Metals Tester
• Gemological Binocular Microscope
• 10x Triplet Jeweler’s Loupe
After testing jewelry, hallmarking is done the laboratory.
Hallmarking system :
Hallmarking system for silver as well as gold jewelry sold in India certifying to the purity of the metal. It certifies that the piece of jewelry conforms to a set of standards laid by the Laboratory who test it. The mandatory status of hallmarking gold jewelry sold in India, although declared, is still in implementation. But it has a wide acceptance among the consumers. But still leads to fake hallmarking of jewelry which is under the regular scrutiny of the bureau of Indian Standard.
Appaisal Report by laboratory:
The laboratory which tests jewelry offers appraisal services in India for insurance and pricing purpose only.
Packing and sealing :
Laboratory which test jewelry made packaging & sealing Solution for Color Stones, Diamond & Diamond Jewelry and for Pearls to suit the different need of our customers. Packaging has become most essential part of presentation and sales in this world & Laboratory takes this very seriously so the packaging explains the product automatically.
Puja is the word generally used in Hinduism. There are some different meanings of puja. Like Tamil interpretation is, “puja” has two letters—“pa” and “ja”— “Pa” stands for Parayana and “ja” stands for “japa”. There is another explanation for Puja “Pu” represents pushpam(flower) and “ja” represents Jal. Generally pushpa and jal we used for paying respect to God.
Puja Accessories and Items
There are some Puja Accessories which we used in Puja.
Navgrah shanti packs
Different people do puja of different God according to their believes. Like Ganesh Puja, Shiva Puja, Durga Puja, Kali Puja, Narayan Puja etc. And these all accessories used in Puja.
Benefits of Puja:
For removal of obstacles in life.
For health, wealth and prosperity.
For improving the capacity of exploring ourselves.
For improving self-confidence.
For increasing decision making capacity that what is wrong and what is right.
For bringing peace in home.
Some people vastu Items in Puja like Shree yantra, Crystal Pyramid. Now a day Statue of God has been made by metals, crystal, parad and Raanga. Specially Keeping Parad Statue of God in home is more effective than other.
PARAD SHIVLING: It is made of mercury and silver.
1- Parad shivaling is god shiva himself. Worshipping Daily and offering Bel leaves, Pushpa(flower) and snan ,Pleases and makes paradeshwor mahadev(god shiva) happy.
2 – Parad shivaling is supreme god of universe, all god and goddess worship god shiva (Parad shivaling) to please god shiva, there is no difference between god shiva and pardeshwor shivling.
3 – Any one who worship god shiva in parad form attains importance of life,hence one will attains good health.
4- Parad shivalinga worship in home and temple daily attains prosperity,good health and there is residential of all god/goddess in that bless home.
5 – Parad shivling)lord shiv) is only Supreme god of universe,who wash and removes all sin and mistake done in past,present life. We should make happy god shiva by chanting god shiva different mantra, offering daily flower to god shiva in temple.
6- Worshipping parad shivalinga in home and establishing in temple helps to attains mukti/Moksha(Salvation) ,one will attains free from life cycle of trouble who even darshan paradeshwor mahadev(god shiva as parad form).
What is Meditation?
The word meditation, is derived from two Latin words: meditari(to think, to exercise the mind) and mederi (to heal). Its Sanskrit derivation ‘medha’ means wisdom.
An ordinary person may consider meditation as a prayer or worship. But it is not so. Meditation means awareness. Whatever we do with awareness is called meditation. “Knowing the rate of your breath” is meditation; listening to the birds voice is meditation. As long as these activities are free from any other distraction to the mind, it is effective meditation.
Meditation is not a technique but a way of life according to which we should live. Meditation means end of the thought process. Meditation describes a state of consciousness, when the mind is free from scattered thoughts and various patterns. The person who is doing meditation realizes that all the useless activity of the mind is reduced.
Traditionally, the classical yoga describes that to attain true states of meditation one must go through several stages. After the necessary preparation of personal and social code, breath control, physical position, and relaxation in more advanced stages of concentration, contemplation and then ultimately absorption. But that does not mean that one should perfect any one stage before moving into the next. Over all yoga technique (Meditation) is simultaneous application of a little of all stages together.
Now a day, people think that any one of these stages when they refer to the term meditation. Some schools pay attention only on concentration techniques, some relaxation, and others teach free form contemplative activities like just sitting and awaiting absorption. Some call it meditation without giving credence to yoga for fear of being branded ‘eastern’. But yoga is not something related to eastern or western as it is universal in its approach and application.
There are some tips for the Meditation:
1. Choose a Convenient Time.
2. Choose Quiet Place.
3. Sit in a Comfortable Posture.
4. Keep a Relatively Empty Stomach.
5. Start With a Few Warm-ups.
6. Take a Few Deep Breaths.
7. Keep a Gentle Smile on Your Face.
8. Open Your Eyes Slowly and Gently.
Meditation: enrichment to your soul
Commonly people have a number of thoughts in their mind. Due to which they never have peace in their mind. It is said that generally people have 30 to 35 thoughts processed in their mind in one day. Meditation is a process through which maximum thoughts vanishes and only around 5 to 6 thoughts stay in mind and people lives in peaceful state. The person who does meditation creates peaceful environment around them.
Improvement in concentration – Many of the sports and athletes professionals regularly employ meditation methods. Studies have found a direct relation between concentration exercises (meditation) and the performance level of sports and athletes professionals.
Benefits of Meditation:
• It decreases respiratory rate.
• Good for people with high blood pressure as it reduces B.P. Problem.
• It increases blood flow in our body and slows the heart rate.
• Increases exercise tolerance in heart patients.
• Decreases muscle tension (pain due to tension) and headaches.
• Also reduces activity of viruses against affecting our body.
• It improves the capacity of exploring your inner conscience.
Science behind Meditation:
1. STRESS: According to NEUROSCIENTISTS, as we tend to still meditate your brain PHYSICALLY CHANGES, even though we’re not aware. It reshapes itself. Mindfulness meditation activates the remaining part of our nervous system.
2. FOCUS: NEUROSCIENTISTS have conjointly found that, when ten hours of meditation, practitioners had structural changes within the a part of the brain concerned in observance self-control and our focus.
3. Pressure Level: one who does meditation reduces ninetieth of force per unit area from their mind.
4. Relationship: when doing analysis Researchers found MARRIED COUPLES has exaggerated mindfulness through meditation improves marital status quality and communication.
Meditation will maintain harmony in relationships with everybody.
After meditation you may become lighter WITH YOURSELF, that makes it easier for others to get on with you, and you discover it easier to simply accept them.
Amethyst Gemstone-The Stone of Spirituality
Typical Size Range : 1 – 20 ct; faceted stones over 1000 ct are known
Specific Gravity : 2.66 (+ .03, -.02)
Main Chakra: Crown
Vibrates to the number 3
Astrological Signs Pisces, Virgo, Aquarius, and Capricorn Birthstone: February, June Amethyst is a member of the crystal quartz or silica group, which are the most common minerals on our planet.
Amethyst Meaning : This crystals name comes from the Greek word ‘amethustos’, meaning non-drunk.
From where it has come? This stone has been found in a large number of locations, including Europe, Russia, India, Sri Lanka, East Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Uruguay, Bolivia the USA and Canada.
How can Amethyst help you?
We basically want to discuss its effects in human beings.
1. Sleeping Aid : Scientist has done researches on animals and humans that far-infrared regulation has what scientists call a sleep modulator effect. The low level of heat emitted by Amethyst gemstone can help to relax your body, and help you sleep.
2. People Feel Happier: When this violet Amethyst crystal is used in our jewelry, It helps us for being happy.
3. Increased Anti-Oxidant Activity: We all know the benefits of antioxidants. They help us fight against aging process. Well, it turns out that far-infrared radiation promotes antioxidant production in the body. To think that Amethyst Gemstone can actually help produce antioxidants. It’s really impressive. And it appears like to work through the low-level heating process, although we do not understand the mechanism behind it.
4. Helps in releasing Stress : It is very good for overworked, over stressed, or overwhelmed metal states because of it extreme calming mental effects. It is considered an extremely spiritual stone. In the Old Testament, it is written that Aaron, the Jewish High Priest, wore the amethyst in the center of his breastplate, and it was said to induce visions and revelations. Many people sleep with an Amethyst crystal under their pillow for this reason. The Catholic bishop still wears an Amethyst ring on the second finger of his right hand.
5. Helps in releasing addictions : Amethyst comes from a Greek word, amethusos, meaning not drunk. There is a ancient myth about Bacchus turning a young maiden to stone, and in remorse, he poured wine on the statue, staining it purple and creating amethyst. Goblets of Amethyst were said to prevent the drinker from being overwhelmed by the drink’s spirit. Today those trying to overcome addictions, especially alcohol addiction, use the healing powers of Amethyst as an aid.
6. Spirituality : Amethyst fosters healing and selflessness, and is associated with increased nobility, spiritual awareness, meditation, balance, psychic abilities, inner peace, and positive transformation. Some say it should be called the Stone of Transformation. Known also as “Metamorphosis”.
7. Negates : It helps in removing over indulgence, grief, anger, guilt, fear, rage, confusion, impatience, and resentment, Insomnia, nightmares
Yantra (यन्त्र) is the Sanskrit word for a mystical diagram. Yantra (यन्त्र) is the Sanskrit word for “machine” or “instrument”. The word “instrument” itself, it can stand for automata, symbols, processes, machinery or anything that has structure and organization, depending on the context.
Patterns and Shapes of Yantra, commonly employed triangles, square, circles and floral patterns but may also include more complex and expanded symbols, for example :
• The lotus flower generally represents chakra and each petal of lotus flower representing a psychic prosperity associated with that chakra;
• A Bindu or Dot represents the starting point of creation or the infinite, the whole universe.
• The shashtkon (Sanskrit name for a Hexagonal) is composed of a balance in between.
• An upwards triangle of Yantra denotes energy, or more specifically action and service (seva). It may also increase spirituality . It is also said to represent the static substratum of the universe.
• A downwards triangle of Yantra denotes spiritual knowledge. It may also denote the creative power of the cosmos, fecundity, the element of water and Shakti.
• A Swastik sign represents good fortune, welfare, prosperity and spiritual victory.
• Bija mantras (usually represented as characters of Dev Nagiri lipi that corresponds to the acoustic roots of a particular chakra).
Meaning of Geometrical elements:
• Circle = Energy of Panchtatva element (water).
• Diagonal line = Energy of Panchtatvat elemrnt (air).
• Square = Energy of the Panchtatva element (earth).
• Upward-facing Triangle = Energy of Panchtatva element (fire).
• Horizontal line = Energy of Panchtatva element (Gagan).
• Point = Energy of the element Ether.
• Downward-facing Triangle = Spiritual knowledge.
Following are the yantras used for wealth.
1. Lakshmi Yantra
2. Kuber Yantra
3. Shree Yantra
4. Shri Bhairava Yantra.
Yantra for health :
Yantra for education :
1. Saraswati Yantra
2. Hayagirwa Yantra
Yantra for Marriage :
1. Sawayamvara Parvati Yantra
2. Uma Maheshwara Yantra.
As an astrological device :
Yantra is generally used to represent the astronomical position of the planets according to the given date and time. It is considered very auspicious in Hindu mythology. These yantras are made up on various objects i.e. Paper, Precious stones, Metal Plates and alloys. People believed that constantly concentrating on the representation helps to build fortunes, as planets have their peculiar gravity which governs our dharma and karma. These yantras are generally made on a particular date and time according to procedures defined in the vedas.
Yantra function as revelatory conduits of cosmic truths. Yantra, as instrument and spiritual technology, may be appropriately envisioned as prototypical and esoteric concept mapping machines or conceptual looms. Certain yantra are held to embody the energetic signatures , for example, the Cosmos, Consciousness and ishta -devata.
Conclusion : Yantras are spiritual conductors of cosmic energy that should be worshipped daily. They help us to bring about the desired effects in a quicker manner. However, since the cosmos(universe) works on the principle of cause and effect, only if karma permits, only then one can enjoy the full destined fruits. Otherwise, one has to work out the due karma stored from the past birth. However, yantras emits positive energies that shape one’s thought patterns thereby improving the life for the better and elevating it to another level.
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Yellow Sapphire Or Pukhraj
Yellow sapphire in hindi called pukhraj is the gemstone proposed for Jupiter which the heaviest and biggest planet among all the planets in our Solar system. Jupiter has been consider as the teacher (master) of all the eminent bodies overarching in universe and have been perched on the throne of pastor for all. Jupiter is being to consider as Sattvik planet for its harmony and liberality in the yellow tinted impression of its diamond. Thursday is said to be the day of Jupiter as Brahaspatiwar and is the ruler of the demeaner of northeast heading.
Effects Of Wearing Pukhraj Gemstone :
According to Hindu or Vedic Astrology, the yellow sapphire (pukhraj) signifies the planet Jupiter. It is golden yellow color with a shade of lemon yellow in color and is one of the expensive gemstone. However, it is not as expensive as its blue sapphire. It is worn by the people for finding blessings of the planet Jupiter. It bestows the wearer with good health, wealth, intelligence, financial gain, long life, and fame and honor. If Jupiter is properly placed in your horoscope then it will give you noble results you can definitely start wearing Pukhraj or yellow sapphire.
Pukhraj is helpful for business. Yellow sapphire is helpful to increase chances of profit in business and export import deals and it is believed that it increases the amount of profit too. However, it is very important to consult with an expert Astrologer before wearing pukhraj or yellow sapphire because in case that your horoscope has Jupiter frolicking a malefic role, wearing Pukhraj can also harm you instead of giving you positive results. It is also very helpful for the ladies who are suffering a lot in finding a good life partner. yellow sapphire or Pukhraj is said to ensure that there are no delays and hitches in marriage. Not only this, if there is a problem of getting a child, Jupiter also helps in getting a new one born in your family.
Pukhraj is common gemstone, but costly gemstone which people usually look for. The cause for this esteem can be indeed accredited to the wide-ranging benefits of pukhraj or Yellow Sapphire gemstone. Pukhraj has a lots of benefits, from outperforming in academics to having peace and safety. Pukhraj is rarely harms. Yellow Sapphire or Pukhraj is a gemstone which will defenitely help you in one way or the other.
Substitute Of Pukhraj Stone : Topaz is the substitute of Yellow Sapphire. Topaz is an aluminium silicate with fluoride and hydroxide ions. Yellow Topaz Gemstone benefits is lifting one’s confidence and self esteem. Yellow Topaz Gemstones healing properties include relief from liver problems, indigestion, chronic memory loss and diabetes.”
Pukhraj Stone Price In India : Pukhraj or Yellow Sapphire is commercially sold at various places in India. It is nowadays being sold online, and cost of yellow sapphire has also varied largely among these variations. It is very crucial to ascertain yourself that the seller you’re purchasing from, is verified, and that he gives a certification from a standard certifying institute for every piece he sells.
Price of Pukhraj stone in India also varies largely among the sellers. Many sellers might even try to deceive you showing you the glass imitation of yellow sapphire. A glass imitation of yellow sapphire is carved out from yellow glass, and brushed and polished to give it a finishing look of Pukhraj or yellow Sapphire. You can read how to test for such fake imitations here.
5 Ways To Check Yellow Sapphire (Pukhraj) :
Here, we’ll suggest 5 ways to check the quality and originality of Yellow Sapphire. You can use one of them to test the yellow sapphire you already have, or the one you’ll be buying.
1. Milk Test:
This test is recommended to test originality but you can use it to test both, the quality and originality of Pukhraj or Yellow Sapphire. If a pukhraj or yellow sapphire is kept in milk for a day means 24 hours, it will not change color. Before this test, be sure that milk you are using is not adulterated or tainted.
2. Sunlight Test :
Sunlight test can be used to test the yellow sapphire at first place. You can comfortably use it at the shops, without any hassles. Just place the yellow sapphire exposed to sunlight and keep a pure white handkerchief or white cloth ahead of it. Pukhraj will give a sharp yellow hue/tint to the spot where it reflects the light. If you observe a very dim or light shade of yellow, it means the yellow sapphire is likely to fail the Milk test also, as it lacks in originality.
3. Bubble Test:
Yellow sapphire or Pukhraj is totally distinctive from all other varieties of sapphires available commercially in the market. Sapphires generally have quite a few interior inclusion and fissures, but yellow sapphires do not generally have them. Fake yellow sapphire or Pukhraj, on the other hand, has tiny bubbles inside. However, absence of these bubbles doesn’t necessarily guarantee the purity and quality of the gemstone.
4. The Facets Test:
Some sellers may even try to deceive you by showing you a glass imitation of yellow sapphire. This test can be very easily be used to check such games, since glass is not as rigid as sapphire, it can be cut considerably easily. Yellow glass stone is cut somewhat easily and commonly have smooth, curvy edges. In contrast, a yellow sapphire or Pukhraj has more complex cuts that are sharp and crusty.
5. Scratch and X-Cut Test :
On a trivial scale, ordinary yellow sapphires can be cut into almost any style. As soon as stones get higher than a carat, though, many jewellers are apt to favour cutting sapphires into oval or “cushion mixed” cut. Manufacturers of synthetic stones often place an “X” cut, also called a scissors cut, on the facets of a stone. Be aware that you don’t buy such a Pukhraj.
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