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Although the following was written quite some time ago, the underlining theme is even more hard-hitting today. The statements below not only apply to software, but in today’s electronic world, serious penalties for copyright infringement carry over to music, movies, television shows and even
Consider the points made and take the necessary measures to adjust your use of software, electronic music, DVDs, and imagesdvd-best.
florence I’m Florence, Paggui. Here is a good philosophy of life, enjoy the road with flowers and enjoy the road with stones.
paggui GODDI, JAMELA
If I take a DVD with a piece of software on it, without the owner’s approval, then everyone would agree that it is an act of theft. But if I only copy the disc’s content, or downloads it over the internet, and thus do not deprive the owner of any physical object, is it still theft?
The most basic understanding of theft would be when you take possession of someone’s physical property without that someone’s approval, be it a car, a wallet, or some jewels. Prototypically theft involves touchable things, but it can also extend to nonphysical things. For instance, you can illegally empty someone else’s bank account without actually moving any physical coins or money around. It would still be theft, even though no physical objects are involved. In both cases, you would have deprived the rightful owner of something of value.
But can the concept of ‘theft’ be extended to illegal copying and downloading of software? Clearly you have not deprived the owner of anything physical or even digital. You have merely copied it. The software itself is still there in its original place, so how can it be theft?
If I steal a physical DVD with software on it, it is not the disc itself I want. It’s the content of the disc that I want. If I illegally copy or download it, I’m after the same thing. The fact that I’m not taking the software with its physical container/carrier seems irrelevant to me. I have illegally transferred something into my possession that doesn’t belong to me. I have thereby also unduly benefited from someone else’s property. I have infringed on the legal owner’s right to control its distribution. Does this amount to theft? Instinctively I would say yes, it does.
Now, I can understand if people object to this. It’s common to treat words and their meanings as fixed points in the universe. If you have a fixed concept of the word ‘theft’, and try to apply that to illegal copying/downloading, then you would naturally conclude that illegal copying is not an act of theft because you’re not depriving the owner of the thing you’re making a copy of but words and meanings are not fixtures. Nor should they be treated as such. The world around us changes all the time, and so we must constantly re-negotiate our vocabulary to match it. Otherwise our language would eventually be useless.
The meaning of ‘theft’ relies on (at least) three concepts, namely, property, ownership and possession, as well as on how those concepts are transferred between keeper and taker. When the idea of theft was originally thought up (an occasion now long lost to history), there were no digital products around. Now there are. I can have ownership and possession of a physical thing like a car, and I can have ownership and possession of a digital product like a piece of software or a digital recording. A piece of software cannot normally change hands in a physical sense, only copied. That is, while you can transfer the ownership of software, you cannot physically transfer the property itself. You can copy it and then delete the original, but unless you transfer the software’s physical carrier/container, the software by itself cannot be transferred.
If the concept of ‘theft’ depends necessarily on the illegal transfer of the property itself, it should by implication never be possible to steal digital products. To me, there’s something wrong, and obsolete, about that. In principle, anything that can be possessed can also be stolen. It really isn’t that much of a stretch to re-think the idea of ‘theft’ to include illegal copying/downloading. We need to focus on theft as an act of illegally taking possession of a property, and only that. The physical transfer of the property itself does not have to be involved.
I should perhaps emphasize that I’m not talking about the legal definition of ‘theft’ here. I’m trying to understand a colloquial usage of the word ‘theft’, in particular my own. And to be quite frank, I’m not even sure that I’m all that categorical about it. Perhaps we do need a new word for this. I guess my only point is that it’s at least not impossible to think of illegal copying/downloading as an act of theft. Many people do not view software as property because it is not a tangible thing that you can pick up and hold. However, not all property is tangible. Software is intellectual property, just like a song, a book, an article, a trademark or an invention. All of these things are owned, and can be bought, sold and licensed. All of them are used to make money for the people who create them. In the case of most commercial programs, the people who have worked to create them do this work for a living. In most cases, software engineers are not millionaires, they are working people like you who have staked their livelihoods on the programs you are stealing. In a very real sense, you are taking bread from their table by making or using illegal copies.
If you are copying software illegally, you should stop immediately. If you see someone else doing it, tell them to stop. If they don’t stop, turn them in. The practice exposes you and/or the institute to liability, jeopardizes your chances of receiving a good, legitimate deal from vendors, and compromises RIT’s reputation in the business community
case studies below:
You are a computer system manager. An employee out sick and another employee requests that you copy all files from the sick person’s computer to theirs so that they can do some work.
What do you do?
Obvious risk is privacy. Other risk is there might be a complaint suit from the employee. If the work that needs to be done (by employee making request), risk of it not being completed.
Ethical decision depends, in part, on policies and expectations at particular company. Also on perhaps requiring more information. Can call sick employee, but this might not be possible. Request authorization from project manager, or employee’s line manager.
In actual case, system manager refused to transfer all files, but agreed to transfer specific files if given the filenames.
You work for one of the large credit card companies. Someone asks you to get a copy of a person’s file. He will pay you R1000.
What do you do?
Who are the stakeholders?
What alternative actions are open to you?
Which are ethically prohibited or obligatory?
A variant of the scenario:
You know another employee sells files with people’s personal information. Again, what do you do?
You are the manager of a university computer system that provides computer accounts and email facilities to students. You discover that a handful of students have been spamming the entire class and sending junk email to all of the email aliases. You are unable to find out exactly who these students are as they are using a facility out with the university and posting anonymously. What do you do?
These scenarios will be asked to different individuals. Two (2) individuals for each scenario should be interviewed. These individuals should be a professional in your field. Take a video or picture of the interview then let the person sign in your documentation.
Your output will be a portfolio which should be done in a simple blog. You could choose any free blogging sites for your portfolio.
The design of your portfolio should include the following:
A brief overview of who you are in and out (for each member of the pair). With picture of your choice.
Your personal philosophy (belief) on professional ethics.
The topic you selected then below it would be the articles related to your topic then your meta-analysis
Interviews with 2 individuals for each scenario with videos or pictures and other documents in support.
Your own point of view on the scenarios
One of company policy is that segregation of duties is very important for better control purposes. But in some instances like these in case of absences or in leave employees yet their work is a pre-step or pre-requisite to succeeding personnel’s or employee’s work, then there must be a policy when it comes to access on files or work of absent employee that is necessary for work of other employee. Only those specific files allowed and necessary for other employee’s work would be transferred provided for their proper authorization.
In some cases most employees who will be taking leave for any valid reasons would advise or give notice to their line manager and leave from some specific when work must be accomplished during his/her leave.
Sorry that I will not give any copy of a person’s file or our client’s file to anyone without proper authorization and proper verification. I regardless of any offer, as an employee of a credit card company it’s not my duty or obligation to give a copy of a person file to authorize person its our responsibility to protect our clients privacy and serve them well.
We can only give a copy of persons file upon request for our client but with through verification of valid identification and representation or if such information is required b law such compliance with subpoena issued by court in the course of legal proceedings, or if there is a professional duty to disclose or provide a copy of information to defend our self if used by our client.
In case we found out that other employee sells tiles of client’s personal information, it’s our duty to inform those who are in higher authority for proper action of such illegal act (unethical act).
Some procedures we must do when unusual transactions happens would be :
Computer security reviews must be performed
Review authentication and identification controls including password time and day contained access periodic code and password change Random personal information check and automatic log OFF.
Adopt newly developed intrusion detect systems that use artificial intelligence capabilities to detect unusual transactions fallowing thought a system. These are involving and have the prospect of being an order of magnitude improvement in crime detection technology.
D) Fire walls must be installed.
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INTRODUCTION: Rudraksh, Sanskrit: rudrākṣa (“Rudra’s eyes”), is a seed is traditionally used for prayer beads in hinduism. Rudraksha stems from Hindu mythology and means “the eyes of Shiva”. The mythology that surrounds the Rudraksha is that the Hindu god Shiva meditated on the welfare of all mankind and cried tears of compassion, peace and joy.
Botanical name of RUDRAKSHA : ELAEOCARPUS GANITRUS ROXB
TYPES OF RUDRAKSHA: mainly it is of three types:
Nepali Rudraksha Bead
Indonesian Rudraksha Bead
Indian Rudraksha Bead
Nepali Rudraksha Bead and Indonesian Rudraksha Bead
Species: Rudrakshas from Nepal & Indonesia both belong to the “Elaeocarpus Granitrus Roxb.” Family as they both share the same internal structure though there might be slight differences on the external surface.
Variety: Both Nepal & Indonesia produce Rudrakshas right from 2 mukhi to 21 mukhi, Gaurishanker, Ganesha, savar & trijudi Rudraksha. Rudrakshas like 1 mukhi & 22 mukhi to 38 mukhi are rarely produced. Whereas Rudraksha from India range from 1 mukhi to 7 mukhi. To check out the different varieties of Rudrakshas visit Multifaceted Rudrakshas.
Mukhis / Facets: The mukhis / facets of Nepalese & Indian Rudrakshas are very well formed, defined & have deep groove cavities on the outer surface, whereas the facets of Indonesian Rudrakshas are just like thread lines slightly etched in the outer surface, hardly a few beads would have deep grooves.
Shape: Rudrakshas from both Nepal & Indonesia share a common shape, 2 & 3 mukhi Rudrakshas from both the origins are elliptically round in shape whereas 5,6,7,8 are mostly round, 9 to 21 & above are oval with a concave top & bottom.
Center hole: Rudrakshas from all the origins have a natural center hole, the center hole may not be very well defined from 3 mukhi to 7 mukhi in either origins. The center hole is absent in Indian Rudrakshas, they have to be drilled by hand. Usually the center hole is covered with the pulp (outer coating), which at times just requires to be hand cleaned before stringing.
Availability: Original Nepalese & Indonesian Rudrakshas are rare to find since lot of faking is going on, lower valued Rudrakshas are being converted into high value beads with the help of skilled artisans. Whereas the Indian Rudrakshas are commonly available. Faking of 1 mukhi half moon shaped from India has increased tremendously & a few well informed Indian 2 mukhis are sold as Nepalese origin at a higher price.
Demand: The demand of higher faceted Nepalese Rudrakshas is more than its supply, whereas the demand & supply of Indonesian Rudrakshas are equal to each other. In terms of Indian Rudrakshas the supply is excess than its demand.
Indian Rudraksha Bead
Indian Rudraksha has cells or Mukhis which differ in numbers. A facet is a line or groove which runs from one end to of Rudraksha to the other end. In ancient epic like Shiv Puran, Shri Mad Devi Bhagwat, Padmpuran etc.
Rudraksha upto 14 Mukhis have been described along with their effects and purpose for which they are useful. Hight Mukhi Rudraksha from 15 to 27 Mukhis have also been found in the later countries their benefits recorded as per experience of the learned people. There are other Rudraksha like Gauri Shankar (two Rudraksha having naturally joined on the tree), Ganesha (a Rudraksha having trunk like protrusion on its body) Sawar (a Gauri Shankar in which one bead has only one line or Mukhi), Trijuti (three Rudraksha beads joined naturally on the tree.
Effects of Rudraksha on Human Being : The Rudraksha is slowly but surely making its way into the lives of the health conscious human beings. The Rudraksha helps in relieving from blood pressure and lessening stress. Soak it in a glass of water overnight and drink it the next day to relieve stomach disorders. Dip it in any vegetable oil for 21 days, and apply it on your aching joints and feel the relief you get. Of course, most people who have tried this have done so along with their regular medicine, but another approach the Rudraksha with a mixture of open mindedness and faith, rationalism as well as emotion, to get positive feedback that is why many who put it under their pillow have sworn that it cured them of their insomnia.
Benefits of Rudraksha Bead :
Rudraksha worshipped as a source of good luck, good health, prosperity, medical values, success, financial gains and for eradication of evil forces.
One chaturmukha ( 4 faces) Rudraksha and one shanmukha (6 faces) Rudraksha tied together with copper wire and wearing with red thread as a (talisman) shiva shakti locket will improve the attentiveness, memory growth, interest in studies, etc., Boon for studies and aged, pundit’s, astrologers, leaders, etc.
For the bite of a Scorpion or other such creatures panchamukhi Rudraksha can be rubbed on a grind stone with the juice of a lemon and the paste applied on the affected spot. Pain will subside.
Those who takes the bath by keeping 9 (nine) Rudrakshas in water will get benefits equally to Ganga Jal Bathing and energy gaining.
The process of Japa increases spiritual power and self-confidence to move in multi direction of life. Therefore, Rudraksha seeds are found be useful for providing health benefits as well as helps in gaining spiritual success.
Wearing Rudraksha results in the destruction of sins from previous birth that cause difficulties in the present life.
There are many laboratories for testing the originality of Gemstone. Now a days demand of Gemstone testing increases because of having its effect on Human Being.
Knowing if a gemstone is real or fake is important so that you don’t end up paying more than its value. Why should you be paying a great deal of money for a fake gem? At the first glance you may not be able to distinguish between a real and fake gem. So you will need to look more closely and look for signs. Imitation or simulated stones look real but their physical characteristics are far from real stones. All natural stones have some inclusions, which makes it easier for a gemologist to distinguish between a real gem and fake gem. So if you are being sold a gem that looks too perfect, it is likely to be a synthetic one that has undergone many treatments in the lab. There is no harm in buying a synthetic gemstone as long as you are fine with it.
Natural gemstones are ones that are naturally beautiful, without any treatments or enhancements. Synthetic gems have more sparkle than real gemstones. They have more weight than original stones as chemicals are added to make the gem look real. A fake gemstone could either be a glass stone or a lab-created stone.
There are some tools and equipment by which Gem stone is tested. Like
• Gemological Binocular Microscope
• 10x Triplet Jeweler’s Loupe
• Mag Light with Dark Field
• Jemeter (infrared reflectance meter)
• Chelsea Filter
• Master Colored Grading Set
• Master Colored Grading Set
• Electronic Metals Tester
There are some steps for testing Gemstones:
Step 1 – Basic Observation: Color, Transparency, and Specific Gravity
The tools we will use in this step like Tweezers, 10x loupe, light source.
Is your stone transparent, translucent, or opaque? Then determine how strong your stone’s fire or dispersion is, if fire is present at all, and note whether it’s strong, moderate, or weak.
Bounce the stone in your palm to determine its heft. Does it feel as heavy as you think it should, considering its size? Does it feel heavier, or unusually light? This is a simple way to determine the stone’s specific gravity.
Step 2 – Light It and Loupe It: Optical Phenomena and Luster :
Pass a pen light or similar sharp, concentrated, incandescent light beam across the stone’s surface to check for special optical characteristics (phenomena), like color change, asterism (star), chatoyancy (cat’s-eye), adularescence (floating shimmer), aventurescence (sparkle), etc.
Turn your stone so that light reflects off its surface (as shown) to assess its luster. View the stone with the naked eye as well as with a 10x loupe (as shown). What do you see? Is it dull, waxy, metallic, shiny like a diamond (adamantine), vitreous (glass-like), greasy, silky?
If there are any chips on the stone, describe the surface inside the chipped area. Is it rounded like the rings on a seashell (conchoidal), straight like steps, granular, splintery, or just uneven? Also determine its luster in the chipped spaces.
Step 3 – Determining Refractive Index and Birefringence:
Before you begin, make sure that your stone is still clean. Also note that refractometers require a light source, so if yours doesn’t have a light built in, you’ll need to shine a light into the light port on the back of it. Almost any light will do, but monochromatic light will generally show you a crisper, clearer reading than white light.
Close the refractometer’s cover whenever possible while taking a gem’s RI so that ambient light around you won’t interfere with your reading. Finally, check your refractometer’s calibration from time to time by taking a test reading on a stone. Then we will perform Birefringence test.
Step 4 – Determining Single vs. Double Refraction :
The tool we will use is polariscope. A polariscope is a simple tool that will help you determine if your gem is doubly refractive (DR), singly refractive (SR), or an aggregate (AGG). Note that only transparent and translucent gemstones should be used with a polariscope; opaque or nearly opaque stones won’t provide a reading.
Gemstone Identification : It describes a color stone and lists detectable treatments.
Like : NATURAL YELLOW SAPPHIRE IDENTIFICATION
Trade name: Pukhraj
Weight : 48.50 cts
Color : Yellow
Shape and Cut : as per the requirement
Gemstone Grading Report
Full 4Cs assessment- Cut, Color, Carat, Clarity. Laboratory report number included. For loose, Ruby, sapphire, Emerald, Tanzanite, Spessartite Garnet, Demontoid Garnet, and Phenomenon stones. Each report also includes possible detected treatment indication.
The diamond market is rife with fabrications that are so close to the real thing. To some, these fabrications are an offense to real diamonds everywhere, whereas others are simply glad to buy a cheaper simulate. What difference does it make to the consumer, especially when no one carries diamond testers with them to test the legitimacy of strangers’ diamonds? Whatever the case may be, it is important to know the basics of discerning the difference between a real and a fake diamond to ensure that the customer gets exactly what they want.
The primary way of testing a diamond is by using a testing machine. These small mechanisms send heat through the gem to test how quickly it conducts the heat. Every type of stone has it’s own rate of conducting heat, meaning that a real diamond will always go at a certain speed. The only problem with this method is that another mineral, moissanite, has the exact same rate of heat conductivity as a diamond, so special tests need to be done after the fact to ensure that the diamond is not this mineral.
But those who do not have access to a diamond testing machine have other means of finding out. Diamonds distort whatever goes through them, whereas a fake stone will show a clear image like glass. Placing a diamond on top of some newspaper text, for example, is a way to test this. If the stone distorts the letters, it is real. If the stone acts like glass and is completely see-through, it is fake.
DIAMOND TESTERS AND U.V. (Ultra Violet light) :
Some models of diamond tester have a built-in UV light, and this has led to the quite logical assumption that UV light can be used for testing diamonds. This is not true. There is absolutely no way you can distinguish diamond from non-diamond using UV light. The only useful thing to know is that diamonds fluoresce (glow) randomly. So if you have a cluster ring or a diamond brooch and all the stones react in exactly the same way (whether they fluoresce or not) – they are probably not diamond; if some fluoresce and some don’t…then they might be diamond…but they might not.
UV light does, however, has some use for gemologist because it can give an indication of probability when comparing natural diamonds with synthetic diamonds (see ‘Explanation’ at the bottom of this section). For examining ‘parcels’ of diamonds you will need a UV lamp that provides long-wave (this is the type we sell, this is the type on the diamond tester) AND a short-wave UV light (which we don’t sell). View the stones on a black background in a completely dark room (or a special UV viewing cabinet). Natural colourless diamonds (of which about 40% fluoresce) usually fluoresce more under long-wave than under short-wave; some synthetic diamonds have just the reverse reaction, the fluorescence is weak (or nil) under long-wave, and strong (or stronger) under short-wave. If, therefore, you buy loose diamonds it could be worthwhile checking each parcel under UV light to judge the probable mix of ‘naturals’ and ‘synthetics’. But examining a diamond under a UV light will tell you nothing. This information is for the gemmologist or professional diamond dealer, the average jeweller or antiques dealer does not need to know any of this.
UV light can also be useful when grading a diamond for color, because white diamonds that fluoresce under UV light also fluoresce under UV light present in daylight, and this can make the stone appear a better color than it really is.
Moissanite is a manmade stone (it doesn’t exist in nature in a form that can be cut into gemstones*). It is not common, it was only ‘invented’ in the 1990s, its only significance is that is registers ‘diamond’ on diamond testers. Moissanite does, to the non-expert, look remarkably like diamond – but it is not diamond it is Moissanite, i.e. Moissanite is not a ‘type’ of diamond, it is another stone altogether. Moissanite testers work by measuring electrical conductivity through the stone. Diamond is not electrically conductive, Moissanite is. However, there is a very rare type of diamond (Type II diamonds) which has an unusual chemical composition (it does not contain nitrogen, it does contains boron) and this makes the diamond electrically conductive, i.e. it will register ‘Moissanite’ on a diamond tester.
IDENTIFICATION REPORT: identification Report is a response to the increase in treated and synthetic diamonds in the market place. Available for D-Z and colored diamonds 0.20 carats and less and black diamond’s 5.00 carats and less, Diamond testing services offer tests to determine:
Natural vs. synthetic and color treatment
DIAMOND GRADING REPORT: Diamond Grading Report includes an assessment of the 4Cs – Color, Clarity, Cut, and Carat Weight – along with a plotted diagram of its clarity characteristics. For standard round brilliant cut diamonds falling in the D-to-Z color range, the report also includes a GIA Cut grade.
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